Is PEP dangerous when one is HIV-negative?


I have heard that if you have unprotected sex with someone who is HIV-positive you can be given ARVs called PEP and they help you not to be infected with HIV. Is it not dangerous to take ARVs when you are not yet infected with HIV
Secondly, can one use ARVs the same way women use pills to prevent pregnancy, meaning you take them before you are exposed to HIV?
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), is the use of ARVs to protect people exposed to HIV from getting infected. The ARVs, if given early enough, work by blocking the replication of HIV in the body and can prevent the infection from happening.
ARVs given this way in the right doses under the supervision of qualified medical personnel should not be dangerous, though people may experience some side-effects.
Use of ARVs before exposure to HIV, or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) has also been scientifically found to be protective to people in discordant relationships.
This is where one person is HIV-positive, while the other is negative. This, however, must also be done under the supervision of a qualified medical worker after couple counselling.
Arvs must not be bought across the counter for such use the way family planning pills can be got from pharmacies and drug shops. So, ARVs can be used for prevention purposes, but in order to avoid abusing them, they should be prescribed by qualified medical person.

Health Eating Habits for pregnant mothers.


Want to eat a healthy pregnancy diet — but not sure where to start? Here are a few pointers to help better nourish you and your baby when you’re expecting:


Chew on this: Each moment of your pregnancy is an opportunity to feed your baby well before he or she is even born. So open wide, but try to make each bite count (at least most of the time) by choosing it with your baby in mind.


Select quality over quantity when you can. It may seem obvious and inherently unfair but those 200 calories in a doughnut are not equal to the 200 calories in a whole-grain raisin bran muffin. But your baby will benefit a lot more from 2,000 nutrient-rich calories than 2,000 mostly empty ones.


A fetus needs regular nourishment at regular intervals and only you can provide it. Even if you’re not hungry, your baby is. So try not to skip meals (unless, of course, you simply can’t stomach food because you’ve got a bad case of morning sickness), and eat frequently. Research shows that mothers who eat at least five times a day (three meals plus two snacks, or six mini-meals) are more likely to carry to term.


Get more nutritional bang for your buck by choosing foods that are lightweights when it comes to calories, heavy hitters when it comes to nutrition. Because fat has more than twice as many calories per gram as either proteins or carbs, opting often for lower-fat foods will step up your nutritional efficiency. So choose lean meats over fatty ones, grilled or broiled foods over fried. Spread butter and use salad dressings sparingly. If you’re having trouble gaining enough weight, choose foods that are dense in nutrients and calories — avocados, nuts and dried fruits.


If you’re tempted to drop carbs from your diet to avoid gaining too much weight during pregnancy, don’t: Unrefined carbs (like whole-grain bread and cereals, brown rice, fresh fruits and veggies, beans and peas) supply essential B vitamins, trace minerals, protein and fibre. They’re good for baby and you (helping keep nausea and constipation in check). And because they’re filling and fibre-rich, they’ll help keep your weight gain in check, too: Research suggests eating plenty of fibre may reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes. Just drop the refined carbs (white bread, crackers and pretzels; white rice; refined cereals, snacks and cookies), which are nutritional slackers.



Sugar calories, sadly, are empty calories. And though they’re fine once in a while, they tend to add up a lot quicker than you think, leaving less room for nutritionally substantive calories. What’s more, studies have suggested that in addition to contributing to obesity, heavy sugar consumption may be linked to tooth decay, diabetes and heart disease, among other diseases. Refined sugar goes by many names, including corn syrup and dehydrated cane juice. For delicious and nutritious sweetness, substitute fruit, dried fruit and fruit juice concentrate for sugar when you can. Besides being sweet, they contain vitamins, trace minerals and valuable phytochemicals (plant chemicals that help the body defend itself against disease and ageing).


It’s not surprising that the most nutritious foods haven’t strayed far from their natural state. Eat plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits when they’re in season (but canned and frozen are fine too when fresh ones aren’t available just look for those without added sugar, salt or fat). And try to avoid processed foods; not only have they usually picked up a lot of chemicals, fat, sugar and salt on the assembly line, but they’re frequently low in nutrients.


It isn’t easy to eat healthy when your partner is right next to you on the sofa diving head-first into a pint of ice cream. So enlist the whole family in making your home a healthy food zone. Make whole wheat your house bread, stock your freezer with frozen yoghurt, and fill your fridge with plenty of fresh fruits and veggies.


Willpower has its place, especially when you’re eating for two. Still, everyone needs to give in to temptation now and then without feeling guilty about it. So make an effort to eat healthy most of the time — but hold the deprivation and allow yourself a treat every once in a while. Something that doesn’t add appreciably to your bottom line but makes your taste buds jump for joy: a double scoop of cookies-and-cream, a fast food burger you’ve been craving like crazy. And serve it up without a side of remorse. Just try to pump it up: Add a slice of banana and nuts to your ice cream sundae, or order your burger with tomato and a side salad. Just remember to watch your portions, and stop before you get too carried away.


Are you worried about infertility?

Nowadays, more and more couples find it difficult to have a child quickly, which does not mean that they will never have one: often, it only takes one treatment and / or one a little more time than the “average” to finally enjoy this happy moment.

Who can be infertile? What are the causes ? Can we prevent it? You will find all this information in this article

Infertility: what is it?

When a couple is trying to conceive but unable to conceive a child naturally after at least one year of repeated attempts (or six months of attempts if you are over 35). According to the statistics, it would affect between 10% to 15% of couples. There is also 10% of cases in which the reasons for infertility are not found: it is called idiopathic infertility.

What are the causes of infertility?

The causes of infertility are too numerous to mention. In women, it is mainly abnormalities of ovulation (examples: rare ovulations, or total absence of ovulation), an infection of the uterine horns (example: salpingitis), an endometriosis, the presence of numerous cysts on the ovaries (polycystic ovary syndrome), or thyroid disorders. In males, infertility is often linked to the quality of sperm: sperm are in small quantities (oligospermia) for example, or even completely absent. Or they are present, but suffer from malformations (teratospermia) and / or are so little (asthenospermia) that they can not join the egg to fertilize it. Infertility can also be directly related to ejaculation problems, such as premature ejaculation or retrograde ejaculation (the sperm is ejected not outwards, but in the male bladder). Some treatments also often cause infertility in men and women, including taking anti-cancer drugs.

Age, an important risk factor

The main “natural” risk factor is your age: it has indeed a significant influence on your fertility. Its at peak during the twenties, it decreases a little at the age of 30 (75% chance of having a child after one year), then more quickly after 35 years (66% chance of having a child to have a child after one year) until becoming almost nil at the age of 45. Contrary to popular belief, men are not immune to this phenomenon, although to a lesser extent: their fertility decreases very gradually from the age of 25 years. However, this does not prevent many men from having children at very advanced ages!

What are the other risk factors?

For male and female both, excessive consumption of alcohol, drugs and tobacco is high among the main risk factors for infertility. Not to mention the risks of miscarriages or fetal malformations related to these substances … Excessive consumption of caffeine can also promote infertility.

A cause of infertility: ovulation disorders

It may be an absence of mid-cycle ovulation, infrequent or irregular ovulation. Such disturbances of ovulation can result in fertility problems. Recall that the optimal fertilization period is between 4 days before ovulation and 2 days after.

Hormonal disorders, causing infertility

These hormonal disorders can be induced by some drug treatments may be, but also by pollution. Indeed, our environment and our food expose us more and more toxic substances accused of being endocrine disruption, that is to say, able to disrupt our hormonal balance.

Tubal obstruction

Tubes can be blocked, damaged or absent. This can occur as a result of infection, surgery for ectopic pregnancy, or sterilization.

An abnormality of the cervix can lead to infertility

The cervix may be responsible for infertility. This is the case, for example, after surgical treatment, which can modify the production and the quality of the cervical mucus, essential for the penetration of spermatozoa.

Uterine Fibroid, Ovarian cyst and endometriosis

The presence of one or more fibroids, polyps or polycystic ovaries also hinders fertility because these tumors hinder the implantation of the embryo. They increase the risk of miscarriage.

Endometriosis increases the risk of infertility: this disease is characterized by migration of endometrial fragments outside the uterus. Endometriosis causes pelvic pain, menstrual disorders, but it is also the most common cause of infertility in women.

How to prevent from infertility?

Many causes of infertility can unfortunately not be prevented. On the other hand, you can greatly reduce the risk of infertility by having, you and your spouse, a healthy lifestyle: do not smoke, do not drink too much alcohol, watch your weight … Also opt for a good frequency of reports to boost your fertility: three to four times sex a week are normally sufficient to have a child. Beyond that, it seems that the quality of semen can drop.

Infertility: diagnosis and treatment

There are so many possible causes of infertility that the diagnosis may require many exams. Among the most common in males are spermograms (to evaluate the quantity and quality of spermatozoa) and ultrasound of the genitals. On the female side, there is a test to assess the quality of cervical mucus. Other routine tests also include blood tests to check for hormonal activity, pelvic ultrasound and hysterosalpingography (a medical imaging examination to look at the Fallopian tubes and uterus). As for the treatment, it depends directly on the cause. In both men and women, it may include hormonal treatment, drug treatment or surgery. Often, treatment is enough to have a baby naturally, but it is also sometimes necessary to use in vitro fertilization (IVF).

HIV FACTS???Uganda -People with HIV looked sick vs HIV persons looking healthy.

FB_IMG_15261547704345506The general outlook of an HIV person some time back was sickly. HIV persons looked lean and unhealthy which made people to associate the disease to lean and ill-looking people  and also increased the stigmatization attached to the condition. But this is not so anymore.

The HIV persons in this present day are healthy looking and cannot be identified by just looking at them. There has been a considerable change in their self management and as such, people who adhere to eating well and taking their medications correctly look good.

It is therefore highly dangerous to think that people you meet who are healthy looking  cannot be HIV positive. Such thinking has allowed people to get infected because they refused to protect themselves thinking the person they are with looks too good to be infected with HIV. But truth is, HIV persons can also look pretty good.

5 respiratory etiquettes that can stop the spread of Colds and flu.

IMG_20180507_230602_582Etiquettes are accepted polite behaviours that everyone is expected to know. But there are some etiquettes that are not quiet understood or known by people which results in the spread of infections among people.

These 5 respiratory etiquettes can prevent the spread of colds and flu for a healthy nation.

1. Good hand hygiene: 

Hygiene is a friend of health. Keeping your hands clean and free from germs is a great way to protect yourself and others from infections. Always wash your hands with soap and water.

Keep your hands away from your eyes and nose. You may carry infections to them or from them.

2. Cover your mouth when coughing /sneezing: 

It is not polite and it is unhealthy to cough or sneeze on  others. Always carry a handkerchief or tissue paper with you, especially if you are experiencing cold. Cough/sneeze by covering your mouth to avoid the spread of infections.

If there is no tissue, you can use the inside of your elbow to coveryour mouth.

3. Use Disposable tissues: 

It is more healthy to use disposable tissues when having cold than to use a handkerchief.

4. Dispose off used tissue: 

After sneezing, blowing your nose, or coughing,  there are infectious particles that are deposited in the tissue or handkerchief.  By putting them in your bag, pocket, purse, etc you are contaminating the place. Anytime you put in your hand, you carry these particles unto surfaces as you touch them, and also to people. Properly dispose these used tissues soon as possible  to prevent a spread.

5. Carry a hand sanitizer: 

Get yourself a hand sanitizer to clean your hands where there is no water and soap. Always carry one in your purse or bag.

Let’s stop the spread of infections!

Cancers common amongst men and women

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. It is crucial therefore to know what cancer is and the types of cancers you might be prone to.

Cancer Basics: Cancer  is caused by the abnormal growth of cells in the body.

Cells are what forms the tissues in the body and the tissues form the organs like the lungs, kidney, heart, brain, etc. These organs together make up the human body.

Because cancer is caused by abnormal cell growth, it also means that cancers can affect any organ in the body. That is why we have lung cancer, cancer of the brain, cancer of the cervix, etc.

Even though cancers can affect any organ in the body,  some organs are mostly affected than others depending on various factors like your gender.

 Top 5 cancers affecting Men globally 


2. liver

3. stomach

4. colorectal

5. prostate cancers.

Top 5 cancers affecting women globally 

1. Breast

2. Lung

3. Colorectal

4. Cervical

5. Stomach cancers.